ELLCC 0.1.33 Released

A new binary release of the ELLCC cross compilation tool chain is available.
ELLCC is a pre-packaged set of tools designed to support cross compilation
for a variety of target processors.

This release includes pre-built binaries for 64-bit ARM Linux and
supports the -coverage option to do code coverage. You can see an example
of coverage output at http://ellcc.org/coverage

Unfortunately, I haven’t had time to debug build issues with the MinGW build. As a result the binaries of this release for this host are not available. If anyone is interested in looking into the build failure, patches welcome!

ELLCC includes:

  • ecc (a clang/LLVM based C/C++ compiler)
  • binutils
  • GDB
  • QEMU (on x86_64 Linux hosts)

The ELLCC run-time libraries are supplied pre-built for all targets and
are all covered with BSD-like licenses:

  • libc++ The C++ standard library
  • musl The POSIX compliant C library
  • compiler-rt Low level compiler support
  • expat XML parsing
  • libedit Command history
  • ncurses Terminal handling
  • zlib Compression/decompression
  • curl URL syntax data transfer
  • libevent Event notification
  • mbed TLS Transport Layer Security
  • c-ares Asynchronous DNS
  • libssh2 Client side SSH2
  • libmetalink Metalink support
  • openldap Lightweight directory access protocol
  • nanomsg Several common communication patterns

ELLCC is entirely self hosting.

From the ChangeLog:

version 0.1.33:

* Update to GDB 7.12,
* Update to LLVM r283663.
* Added 64 bit ARM hosts to the pre-built binaries.
* Fixed libedit configuration rules.
* Update to LLVM r283106.
* Update the c-ares library to version 1.12.0.
* Update to LLVM r283004.
* Update the nghttp2 library to version 1.15.0. 
* Update the curl library to version 7.50.3.
* Update to LLVM r282329.
* Update to LLVM r281818.
* Update to LLVM r281453.
* Update to LLVM r281321.
* Update to LLVM r280704.
* Update to libedit-20160903-3.1.
* Update to QEMU 2.7.0.
* Update the nghttp2 library to version 1.14.0.
* Update to LLVM r279916.
* Update to LLVM r279342.
* Update to LLVM r278565.
* Enhanced llvm-cov HTML output.
* Enable code coverage with the -coverage option.

Binary tarballs are available from here.

The tool chain can build programs for ARM, Mips, PowerPC, and x86 Linux and
stand-alone targets and x86 Windows systems.

Pre-built binaries are available for ARM, Mips, and x86 Linux host systems
as well as x86_64 Windows and Mac OS X hosts.

All host systems can build programs for all the supported targets.

Available targets are listed here.

Cross Building tcsh with ELLCC: Revisted

A long time ago, I wrote a post about building the tcsh shell with ELLCC. The subject came up again recently, so I thought that a revisit might be in order.

First, I downloaded the latest tcsh sources with wget and unpacked them with tar:

rich@dev:~$ wget ftp://ftp.astron.com/pub/tcsh/tcsh-6.19.00.tar.gz
--2016-08-31 16:16:59--  ftp://ftp.astron.com/pub/tcsh/tcsh-6.19.00.tar.gz
           => ‘tcsh-6.19.00.tar.gz’
Resolving ftp.astron.com (ftp.astron.com)... 38.117.134.18
Connecting to ftp.astron.com (ftp.astron.com)|38.117.134.18|:21... connected.
Logging in as anonymous ... Logged in!
==> SYST ... done.    ==> PWD ... done.
==> TYPE I ... done.  ==> CWD (1) /pub/tcsh ... done.
==> SIZE tcsh-6.19.00.tar.gz ... 947135
==> PASV ... done.    ==> RETR tcsh-6.19.00.tar.gz ... done.
Length: 947135 (925K) (unauthoritative)

tcsh-6.19.00.tar.gz 100%[===================>] 924.94K  2.17MB/s    in 0.4s    

2016-08-31 16:17:00 (2.17 MB/s) - ‘tcsh-6.19.00.tar.gz’ saved [947135]

rich@dev:~$ tar xfp tcsh-6.19.00.tar.gz
rich@dev:~$ 

I used wget to get tcsh, but you could also use a web browser.

Next I went into the source directory and ran configure to set up for an ELLCC build:

rich@dev:~$ cd tcsh-6.19.00/
rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ CC="/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target x86_64-linux" CPP="${CC} -E" ./configure
checking for a BSD-compatible install... /usr/bin/install -c
[snip lot's of configure output]
config.status: creating config.h
config.status: executing ./atconfig commands
rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ 

In this case I configured for an x86_64-linux host. A little later I’ll configure the build for a MIPS.

Now for the build:

rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ make
grep 'ERR_' ./sh.err.c | grep '^#define' >> sh.err.h.tmp
sh.err.h recreated.
/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target x86_64-linux -E -I. -I. -D_PATH_TCSHELL='"/usr/local/bin/tcsh"'    -D_h_tc_const\
    ./tc.const.c | \
    sed -n -e 's/^\(Char STR[a-zA-Z0-9_]*\) *\[ *\].*/extern \1[];/p' | \
    sort >> tc.const.h.tmp
tc.const.h recreated.
/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target x86_64-linux -c -g -O2 -I. -I. -D_PATH_TCSHELL='"/usr/local/bin/tcsh"'    sh.c
/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target x86_64-linux -c -g -O2 -I. -I. -D_PATH_TCSHELL='"/usr/local/bin/tcsh"'    [snip lots of files compiled]
/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target x86_64-linux -c -g -O2 -I. -I. -D_PATH_TCSHELL='"/usr/local/bin/tcsh"'    sh.proc.c
sh.proc.c:155:16: error: variable has incomplete type 'union wait'
    union wait w;
               ^
sh.proc.c:155:11: note: forward declaration of 'union wait'
    union wait w;
          ^
1 error generated.
Makefile:465: recipe for target 'sh.proc.o' failed
make: *** [sh.proc.o] Error 1
rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ 

It turns out the ELLCC’s standard C library doesn’t support a BSD style wait, so I added a conditional compilation around lin 50 of sh.proc.c:

#if defined(_BSD) || (defined(IRIS4D) && __STDC__) || defined(__lucid) || defined(__linux__) || defined(__GNU__) || defined(__GLIBC__)
# if !defined(__ANDROID__) && !defined(__ELLCC__)
#  define BSDWAIT
# endif
#endif /* _BSD || (IRIS4D && __STDC__) || __lucid || glibc */

Now the make succeeded, but when I tried to run the shell I got:

rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ ./tcsh
(nil) current memory allocation:
free:       0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
used:       0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
        Total in use: 0, total free: 0
        Allocated memory from 0x1a00000 to 0xffffffffffffffff.  Real top at 0x1a00000
nbytes=56: Out of memory
Aborted (core dumped)
rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ 

Not good! It turned out that tcsh tries to to its own memory allocation using sbrk() rather than malloc() by default. A quick edit of config_f.h (around line 213) adding another conditional compilation fixed it:

#if defined(__MACHTEN__) || defined(PURIFY) || defined(MALLOC_TRACE) || defined(_OSD_POSIX) || defined(__MVS__) || defined (__CYGWIN__) || defined(__GLIBC__) || defined(__OpenBSD__) || defined(__APPLE__) || defined(__ELLCC__)
# define SYSMALLOC
#else
# undef SYSMALLOC
#endif

You have to manually delete tc.alloc.o and run make again for this change to take affect:

rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ rm tc.alloc.o
rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ make
/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target x86_64-linux -E -I. -I. -D_PATH_TCSHELL='"/usr/local/bin/tcsh"'    -D_h_tc_const\
    ./tc.const.c | \
    sed -n -e 's/^\(Char STR[a-zA-Z0-9_]*\) *\[ *\].*/extern \1[];/p' | \
    sort >> tc.const.h.tmp
tc.const.h unchanged.
/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target x86_64-linux -c -g -O2 -I. -I. -D_PATH_TCSHELL='"/usr/local/bin/tcsh"'    tc.alloc.c
rm -f tcsh core
/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target x86_64-linux -o tcsh  -g -O2 -I. -I. sh.o sh.dir.o sh.dol.o sh.err.o sh.exec.o sh.char.o sh.exp.o sh.file.o sh.func.o sh.glob.o sh.hist.o sh.init.o sh.lex.o sh.misc.o sh.parse.o sh.print.o sh.proc.o sh.sem.o sh.set.o sh.time.o glob.o dotlock.o mi.termios.o ma.setp.o vms.termcap.o tw.help.o tw.init.o tw.parse.o tw.spell.o tw.comp.o tw.color.o ed.chared.o ed.refresh.o ed.screen.o ed.init.o ed.inputl.o ed.defns.o ed.xmap.o ed.term.o tc.alloc.o tc.bind.o tc.const.o tc.defs.o tc.disc.o tc.func.o tc.nls.o tc.os.o tc.printf.o tc.prompt.o tc.sched.o tc.sig.o tc.str.o tc.vers.o tc.who.o  -lncurses   
clang-3.9: warning: argument unused during compilation: '-g'
make[1]: Entering directory '/home/rich/tcsh-6.19.00/nls'
make[1]: Nothing to be done for 'catalogs'.
make[1]: Leaving directory '/home/rich/tcsh-6.19.00/nls'

Now when I run tcsh I get:

rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ ./tcsh
[~/tcsh-6.19.00] dev% set
_
addsuffix
anyerror
arch    Linux-x86_64
arch1   Linux
arch2   x86_64
arch3
argv    ()
autolist
cdpath  (.. /home/rich /usr/rich/src /usr/src /sys/arch/i386 /usr/local/etc/httpd/htdocs)
cdtohome
csubstnonl
cwd     /home/rich/tcsh-6.19.00
dirstack        /home/rich/tcsh-6.19.00
echo_style      both
edit
elegant /home/rich/elegant
euid    1000
euser   rich
gid     1000
group   rich
histdup erase
history 1000
home    /home/rich
iarch   Linux-x86_64
killring        30
notify
owd
path    (/opt/microchip/mplabc32/v2.01/bin /opt/jdk1.5.0_06/jre/bin /usr/local/bin /sbin /usr/sbin /usr/lib64/qt-3.3/bin /usr/lib64/ccache /usr/local/bin /usr/bin /bin /usr/games /usr/local/sbin /usr/sbin /home/rich/.local/bin /home/rich/bin)
prompt  [%~] %m% 
prompt2 %R? 
prompt3 CORRECT>%R (y|n|e|a)? 
promptchars     $#
savehist        (1024 merge)
shell   /usr/local/bin/tcsh
shlvl   4
sourced 0
status  0
tcsh    6.19.00
term    xterm
uid     1000
user    rich
version tcsh 6.19.00 (Astron) 2015-05-21 (x86_64-unknown-linux) options wide,nls,dl,al,kan,rh,color,filec
[~/tcsh-6.19.00] dev% exit
exit
rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$

Nice! Now what about the MIPS? I cleaned up and did a new configure, but it failed:

rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ make distclean
make[1]: Entering directory '/home/rich/tcsh-6.19.00/nls'
rm -f C.cat et.cat finnish.cat french.cat german.cat greek.cat italian.cat ja.cat pl.cat russian.cat spanish.cat ukrainian.cat
make[1]: Leaving directory '/home/rich/tcsh-6.19.00/nls'
rm -f a.out strings x.c xs.c tcsh tcsh.a _MAKE_LOG gethost
rm -f *.o *.i *.s
rm -f sh.prof.c ed.defns.h tc.const.h sh.err.h tc.defs.c
rm -f tcsh.*.m tcsh.*.cat
rm -f Makefile config.h config_p.h
rm -f config.status config.cache config.log tcsh.ps
rm -f missing
rm -rf autom4te.cache
rm -f *~ #*
rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ CC="/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target mips32r2el-linux" CPP="${CC} -E" ./configure
checking for a BSD-compatible install... /usr/bin/install -c
checking build system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking host system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking cached host tuple... ok
Tcsh will use configuration file `linux'.
checking for gcc... /home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target mips32r2el-linux
checking whether the C compiler works... yes
checking for C compiler default output file name... a.out
checking for suffix of executables... 
checking whether we are cross compiling... configure: error: in `/home/rich/tcsh-6.19.00':
configure: error: cannot run C compiled programs.
If you meant to cross compile, use `--host'.
See `config.log' for more details
rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$

Not a big deal, though. All I have to do is tell configure that I’m cross compiling:

rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$  CC="/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target mips32r2el-linux" CPP="${CC} -E" ./configure -host=x86_64-linux
checking for a BSD-compatible install... /usr/bin/install -c
[snip lots of configure output]
config.status: executing ./atconfig commands
rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ make
grep 'ERR_' ./sh.err.c | grep '^#define' >> sh.err.h.tmp
sh.err.h recreated.
/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target mips32r2el-linux -E -I. -I. -D_PATH_TCSHELL='"/usr/local/bin/tcsh"'    -D_h_tc_const\
    ./tc.const.c | \
    sed -n -e 's/^\(Char STR[a-zA-Z0-9_]*\) *\[ *\].*/extern \1[];/p' | \
    sort >> tc.const.h.tmp
tc.const.h recreated.
/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target mips32r2el-linux -c -g -O2 -I. -I. -D_PATH_TCSHELL='"/usr/local/bin/tcsh"'    sh.c
[snip lots of make output]
make[1]: Leaving directory '/home/rich/tcsh-6.19.00/nls'
rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ 

Now I can run file on the tcsh executable to see what it is, and then try to run it:

ich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ file tcsh
tcsh: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, MIPS, MIPS32 rel2 version 1, statically linked, BuildID[sha1]=778f05c34a07a583f3e56ad979235b0bbcb55279, not stripped  
rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ ~/ellcc/bin/qemu-mipsel tcsh
exit
rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$

The good news is that the MIPS executable runs. The bad news is that it exits immediately. A little poking around finds that the MIPS tcsh can run single commands:

rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$ ~/ellcc/bin/qemu-mipsel tcsh -c set
_
addsuffix
anyerror
arch    Linux-x86_64
arch1   Linux
arch2   x86_64
arch3
argv    ()
cdpath  (.. /home/rich /usr/rich/src /usr/src /sys/arch/i386 /usr/local/etc/httpd/htdocs)
cdtohome
command set
csubstnonl
cwd     /home/rich/tcsh-6.19.00
dirstack        /home/rich/tcsh-6.19.00
echo_style      both
edit
elegant /home/rich/elegant
euid    1000
euser   rich
gid     1000
group   rich
histdup erase
history 1000
home    /home/rich
iarch   Linux-x86_64
killring        30
notify
owd
path    (/opt/microchip/mplabc32/v2.01/bin /opt/jdk1.5.0_06/jre/bin /usr/local/bin /sbin /usr/sbin /usr/lib64/qt-3.3/bin /usr/lib64/ccache /usr/local/bin /usr/bin /bin /usr/games /usr/local/sbin /usr/sbin /home/rich/.local/bin /home/rich/bin)
prompt  [%~] %m% 
savehist        (1024 merge)
shell   /usr/local/bin/tcsh
shlvl   4
sourced 0
status  0
tcsh    6.19.00
term    xterm
uid     1000
user    rich
version tcsh 6.19.00 (Astron) 2015-05-21 (mips-unknown-linux) options wide,nls,dl,al,kan,sm,rh,color,filec
rich@dev:~/tcsh-6.19.00$

I tried mips32r2-linux (big endian) and it failed exactly the same way. I also tried a similar cross build for arm32v7-linux and it worked fine. My guess is that there is a bug in QEMU that isn’t handling a MIPS system call correctly, but that investigation will have to be on another day. I’d love to test the binary on a real MIPS system, but I don’t have one. I suspect it might just work.

ELLCC 0.1.32 Released

A new binary release of the ELLCC cross compilation tool chain is available.
ELLCC is a pre-packaged set of tools designed to support cross compilation
for a variety of target processors.

This release supports MIPS and PowerPC 64 bit targets.

Unfortunately, I haven’t had time to debug build issues with the MinGW build. As a result the binaries of this release for this host are not available. If anyone is interested in looking into the build failure, patches welcome!

ELLCC includes:

  • ecc (a clang/LLVM based C/C++ compiler)
  • binutils
  • GDB
  • QEMU (on x86_64 Linux hosts)

The ELLCC run-time libraries are supplied pre-built for all targets and
are all covered with BSD-like licenses:

  • libc++ The C++ standard library
  • musl The POSIX compliant C library
  • compiler-rt Low level compiler support
  • expat XML parsing
  • libedit Command history
  • ncurses Terminal handling
  • zlib Compression/decompression
  • curl URL syntax data transfer
  • libevent Event notification
  • mbed TLS Transport Layer Security
  • c-ares Asynchronous DNS
  • libssh2 Client side SSH2
  • libmetalink Metalink support
  • openldap Lightweight directory access protocol
  • nanomsg Several common communication patterns

ELLCC is entirely self hosting.

From the ChangeLog:

version 0.1.32:

* Update the curl library to version 7.50.1.
* Update to binutils 2.27.
* Update the libssh2 library to version 1.7.0.
* Update to LLVM r277813.
* Update to libedit-20160618-3.1.
* Update to GDB 7.11.1.
* Update the nghttp2 library to version 1.13.0.
* Update the expat library to version 2.2.0.
* Update the curl library to version 7.50.0.
* Update ithe mbedtls library to version 2.3.0.
* Added support for 64 bit LE PowerPC 64.
* Added support for 64 bit MIPS.
* Update to musl 1.1.15.

Binary tarballs are available from here.

The tool chain can build programs for ARM, Mips, PowerPC, and x86 Linux and
stand-alone targets and x86 Windows systems.

Pre-built binaries are available for ARM, Mips, and x86 Linux host systems
as well as x86_64 Windows and Mac OS X hosts.

All host systems can build programs for all the supported targets.

Available targets are listed here.

ELLCC 0.1.28 Released

A new binary release of the ELLCC cross compilation tool chain is available.
ELLCC is a pre-packaged set of tools designed to support cross compilation
for a variety of target processors.

This release has simple instructions for cross building Linux for the
Raspberry Pi and updates several libraries.
This is the last release which will be built with autohell. I hope that I can
figure out how to use cmake soon for the next release.

ELLCC includes:

  • ecc (a clang/LLVM based C/C++ compiler)
  • binutils
  • GDB
  • QEMU (on x86_64 Linux hosts)

The ELLCC run-time libraries are supplied pre-built for all targets and
are all covered with BSD-like licenses:

  • libc++ The C++ standard library
  • musl The POSIX compliant C library
  • compiler-rt Low level compiler support
  • expat XML parsing
  • libedit Command history
  • ncurses Terminal handling
  • zlib Compression
  • curl ULR syntax data transfer
  • libevent Event notification
  • mbed TLS TLS
  • c-ares Asynchronous DNS
  • libssh2 Client side SSH2
  • libmetalink Metalink support
  • openldap Lightweight directory access protocol
  • nanomsg Several common communication patterns

ELLCC is entirely self hosting.

From the ChangeLog:

version 0.1.28:

* Update to curl 7.47.0.
* Update to binutils 2.26.
* Update autoconf files for several libraries.
* Update to LLVM r258477.
* Added missing aarch64 compiler-rt functions: __floatditf, etc.
* Add wireless tools build to ecclinux.
* Update to LLVM r257984.
* Add less build to ecclinux.

Binary tarballs are available from here.

The tool chain can build programs for ARM, Mips, PowerPC, and x86 Linux and
stand-alone targets and x86 Windows systems.

Pre-built binaries are available for ARM, Mips, and x86 Linux host systems
as well as x86_64 Windows and Mac OS X hosts.

All host systems can build programs for all the supported targets.

Available targets are listed here.

From 0 to Raspberry Pi Linux in 45 Minutes

I thought it would be cool to see how long it takes to make a boot-able Raspberry Pi disk using ELLCC. This is a timed experiment. In the end we’ll have an SD card that can be booted on the Pi. First, get a binary ELLCC release:

[~/ellcc-release] dev% mkdir test
[~/ellcc-release] dev% cd test
[~/test] dev% wget http://ellcc.org/releases/ellcc-x86_64-linux-eng-0.1.27.tgz
--2016-01-12 22:00:19--  http://ellcc.org/releases/ellcc-x86_64-linux-eng-0.1.27.tgz
Resolving ellcc.org (ellcc.org)... 174.102.201.124
Connecting to ellcc.org (ellcc.org)|174.102.201.124|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 650187071 (620M) [application/x-gzip]
Saving to: ‘ellcc-x86_64-linux-eng-0.1.27.tgz’

ellcc-x86_64-linux-e 100%[=====================>] 620.07M  11.0MB/s   in 56s    

2016-01-12 22:01:15 (11.1 MB/s) - ‘ellcc-x86_64-linux-eng-0.1.27.tgz’ saved [650187071/650187071]
[~/test] dev% tar xvfp ellcc-x86_64-linux-eng-0.1.27.tgz

Second, check what the options are:

[~/test] dev% cd ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/
[~/test/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev% ./build 
usage: ./build [options] target
  options:
    -packages 'packag1 package2 ...'    Specific packages to build
    -exclude  'packag1 package2 ...'    Specific packages to exclude
    -extras                             Include additional packages
    -clean                              Clean up a previous build
  targets:
    help                                This message
    bcmrpi                              Raspberry Pi    (ARMv6)
    bcm2709                             Raspberry Pi 2  (ARMv7)
  available packages:
    kernel sinit sbase ubase smdev nldev nlmon svc sdhcp loksh
          ntfs3g iproute2 e2fsprogs vim dropbear
  extra packages:
    ellcc
  packages not buildable on the Mac:
    uboot iproute2 e2fsprogs vim

Third, build an image for the Pi 2 that includes the ELLCC tool chain (-extras):

[~/test/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev% ./build -extras bcm2709j
...

Fourth, insert an SD card and install:

[~/test/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev% su
Password: 
[root@dev ecclinux]# ./install
Warning! This command will destroy all data on /dev/sdc.
Continue? [yes/no] yes
...

Put the SD in the Pi and boot. Voila!

Cross Building Linux With ELLCC: Part 5 – Making an SD Card to Boot the Pi.

UPDATE: A more streamlined version of this process is available: From 0 to Raspberry Pi Linux in 45 Minutes

In previous posts I’ve described building the Linux kernel using ELLCC, building Linux for a Raspberry Pi B+, building Linux for the Pi 2, and building Linux on a Mac. In this post we’ll build enough userland and create an SD card that will boot on the Raspberry Pi 2. I just got it to boot this evening and it only gets to the login prompt where I can log in as root, but I think it is pretty cool nonetheless.

I mentioned the ellcc/libecc/ecclinux directory that is in the ELLCC source tree and is included in the ELLCC binary distributions. In this directory, there is a little script that will get sources for the Linux kernel from kernel.org, and a bunch of userland programs from suckless.org and other places. The script will then patch the sources if necessary and build them.

These are the steps I took to create a boot-able SD card. I happened to have a 32 Gig SD card lying around, so I decided to use it. On my Linux box, an SD card shows up as /dev/sdc* so the following commands reflect that. Your system may assign different name. You should verify the name by using df, or something similar, to determine what a newly inserted SD card is.

I’m going to go into a bit of detail here because it is the first time I did this for Linux and I want to keep a detailed record.

UPDATE: I made a little script that populates the SD card. It is in the source repository. The script replaces/enhances the rest of this post.

The first thing I did was to remove the old partitions on the card.

  sudo parted /dev/sdc print
    Model: Generic- SD/MMC (scsi)
    Disk /dev/sdc: 32.1GB
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
    Partition Table: msdos
    Disk Flags: 

    Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags
     1      512B    62.9MB  62.9MB  primary
     2      62.9MB  67.1MB  4209kB  primary

My card had 2 partitions that I got rid of:

  sudo parted /dev/sdc rm 1
    Information: You may need to update /etc/fstab.

  sudo parted /dev/sdc rm 2
    Information: You may need to update /etc/fstab.

  sudo parted /dev/sdc print                                       
    Model: Generic- SD/MMC (scsi)
    Disk /dev/sdc: 32.1GB
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
    Partition Table: msdos
    Disk Flags: 

    Number  Start  End  Size  Type  File system  Flags

Now that the old partitions are gone, we can make new partitions for the Pi. The Pi boots using two partitions, one is in MS-DOS or FAT format, the other is in Linux ext4 format. The Pi has an interesting boot sequence, which is nicely described on this page, but basically the GPU starts up first and executes a first and second stage boot loader, which is really the GPU’s OS, before the ARM is brought up and the Linux kernel is booted. The FAT partition is used by the GPU and contains all the files it needs. The ext4 partition contains the rest of the Linux userland. The FAT partition os mounted as /boot after the ext4 partition is mounted as /.So the next step is to create these two partitions. First the FAT partition:

sudo parted -a optimal /dev/sdc unit chs mkpart primary 0,130,2 8,40,31
sudo parted /dev/sdc set 1 lba on

Now we can fill the rest of the disk with the ext4 partition:

sudo parted -a optimal /dev/sdc mkpart primary 67.1MB 100%

Now we’ll format the file systems:

  sudo mkfs -t fat /dev/sdc1
    mkfs.fat 3.0.27 (2014-11-12)

Then the ext4 partition:

  sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdc2
    mke2fs 1.42.12 (29-Aug-2014)
    Creating filesystem with 7820288 4k blocks and 1957888 inodes
    Filesystem UUID: 3823b7f5-66b6-4e9f-a10e-4a6658d6469f
    Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
            32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208, 
            4096000

    Allocating group tables: done                            
    Writing inode tables: done                            
    Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
    Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done   

We have to mark the first partition as the boot partition:

  sudo parted /dev/sdc set 1 lba on
    Information: You may need to update /etc/fstab.

  sudo parted /dev/sdc print
    Model: Generic- SD/MMC (scsi)
    Disk /dev/sdc: 32.1GB
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
    Partition Table: msdos
    Disk Flags: 

    Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags
     1      4194kB  67.1MB  62.9MB  primary  fat16        lba
     2      67.1MB  32.1GB  32.0GB  primary  ext4

Now we can populate the card. First, build everything using the script. If you run the script with no arguments, it will give you a hint about how to run it:

[~] dev% cd ellcc/libecc/ecclinux
[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev% ./build 
usage: ./build [options] target
  options:
    -packages 'packag1 package2 ...'    Specific packages to build
    -exclude  'packag1 package2 ...'    Specific packages to exclude
    -clean                              Clean up a previous build
  targets:
    help                                This message
    bcmrpi                              Raspberry Pi    (ARMv6)
    bcm2709                             Raspberry Pi 2  (ARMv7)
  available packages:
    uboot kernel sinit sbase ubase smdev nldev nlmon svc sdhcp loksh
          ntfs3g iproute2 e2fsprogs vim ellcc
  packages not buildable on the Mac:
    uboot iproute2 e2fsprogs vim

In this case I’ll build for the Raspberry Pi 2:

[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev% ./build bcm2709
  CHK     include/config/kernel.release
  GEN     ./Makefile
  CHK     include/generated/uapi/linux/version.h
  CHK     include/generated/utsrelease.h
  Using /home/rich/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/linux-4.1.15 as source for kernel
...

The SD card can be populated after the build completes:

 
  mkdir boot root
  sudo mount /dev/sdc1 boot
  sudo mount /dev/sdc2 root
  cp -r image/arm-linux-engeabihf/bcm2709/* boot
  sudo cp boot/vmlinuz-4.1.15-v7 boot/kernel7.img
  cd image/arm-linux-engeabihf/
  tar cvfp - bin etc lib sbin usr var | (cd ../../root; sudo tar xfp -)
  cd cm2709/
  rm -fr *.old
  tar cvfp - * | ( cd ../../../boot ; sudo tar xfp - )
  cd ../../..
  cd etc
  chmod oug+x rc.*
  cp * ../root/etc/
  cd ../sbin
  tar cvfp - * | ( cd ../root/sbin/ ; sudo tar xf - )
  cd ../bin
  chmod oug+x *
  tar cvfp - * | ( cd ../root/bin/ ; sudo tar xf - )
  sudo cp boot.rpi/* boot/
  cd root
  sudo mkdir root proc sys var/run
  sudo mknod dev/tty0 c 4 0
  cd ..
  sudo umount boot root

I popped the SD card into my Pi 2 and finally got the login: prompt. The initial root password is empty.

This has been a busy weekend. I got a boot, the Packers won, and it is late Sunday night and I have to work early tomorrow. I will be making the SD create steps into a script soon, but for now I’ll put up a new binary release of ELLCC, version 0.1.26, that has all the changes if you want to try this out.

Cross Building Linux With ELLCC: Part 4 – Building Linux on the Mac

In a previous post I described cross compiling the Linux kernel and userland for the Raspberry Pi using ELLCC. In this post, I’ll do the same thing on Mac OS X.
I’d like to thank Emmanuel Blot for making this possible. He sent the necessary patches. Thanks Emmanuel!

First we need to make a case insensitive file system:

[~] Richards-Mac-mini% hdiutil create -size 10g -type SPARSEBUNDLE -nospotlight -volname ellcc -fs "Case-sensitive Journaled HFS+" -attach ./ellcc.dmg
/dev/disk1              GUID_partition_scheme           /dev/disk1s1           EFI
/dev/disk1s2            Apple_HFS                       /Volumes/ellcc
created: /Users/rich/ellcc.dmg.sparsebundle

Then get the the latest binary release of ELLCC:

[~] Richards-Mac-mini% cd /Volumes/ellcc/
[/Volumes/ellcc] Richards-Mac-mini% wget http://ellcc.org/releases/ellcc-Mac_OS_X_10.11.2-0.1.25.tgz
--2016-01-06 17:58:38--  http://ellcc.org/releases/ellcc-Mac_OS_X_10.11.2-0.1.25.tgz
Resolving ellcc.org... 174.102.201.124
Connecting to ellcc.org|174.102.201.124|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 417609504 (398M) [application/x-gzip]
Saving to: 'ellcc-Mac_OS_X_10.11.2-0.1.25.tgz'
ellcc-Mac_OS_X_10.11 100%[===================>] 398.26M  11.2MB/s    in 40s
2016-01-06 17:59:18 (10.0 MB/s) - 'ellcc-Mac_OS_X_10.11.2-0.1.25.tgz' saved [417609504/417609504]
[/Volumes/ellcc] Richards-Mac-mini% tar xvfp ellcc-Mac_OS_X_10.11.2-0.1.25.tgz
...

Now we can build. Check for supported boards and choose the one you want:

[/Volumes/ellcc] Richards-Mac-mini% cd ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/
[/Volumes/ellcc/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] Richards-Mac-mini% ./build 
usage: ./build [options] target
  options:
    -nokernel           Don't build the Linux kernel
    -clean              Clean up a previous build
  targets:
    help                This message
    bcmrpi              Raspberry Pi    (ARMv6)
    bcm2709             Raspberry Pi 2  (ARMv7)
[/Volumes/ellcc/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] Richards-Mac-mini% ./build bcm2709
...
Generating configuration file for e2fsprogs version 1.42.13
Release date is May, 2015
checking build system type... x86_64-apple-darwin15.2.0
checking host system type... x86_64-apple-darwin15.2.0
checking for gcc... /Volumes/ellcc/ellcc/bin/ecc -target arm-linux-engeabihf
checking whether the C compiler works... yes
checking for C compiler default output file name... a.out
checking for suffix of executables... 
checking whether we are cross compiling... configure: error: in `/Volumes/ellcc/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/arm-linux-engeabihf/e2fsprogs':
configure: error: cannot run C compiled programs.
If you meant to cross compile, use `--host'.
See `config.log' for more details
[/Volumes/ellcc/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] Richards-Mac-mini%

Looks like I have a problem with the userland build, but the kernel built. I’ll look at that tomorrow. It’s late. Nice!

Cross Building Linux With ELLCC: Part 3 – Other Flavors of Pi

Update: Cross Building Linux With ELLCC: Part 4 – Building Linux on the Mac
In my last post I described using ELLCC to build Linux for the Raspberry Pi B+. In ELLCC version 0.1.24 I added a script to build Linux for both the Pi B+ and the Pi 2. As a bonus, the script also builds a bunch of userland programs

First grab the latest binary release:

[~] dev% wget http://ellcc.org/releases/ellcc-x86_64-linux-eng-0.1.24.tgz
[~] dev% tar xvfp ellcc-x86_64-linux-eng-0.1.24.tgz

Now decide what target to build:

[~] dev% cd ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/
[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev% ls
00_rpilinux-4.1.15.patch   bin/    etc/            makefile      sbin/
99_llvmlinux-4.1.15.patch  build*  iproute2.patch  ntfs3g.patch  sinit/
[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev% ./build 
usage: ./build [options] target
  options:
    -nokernel           Don't build the Linux kernel
    -clean              Clean up a previous build
  targets:
    help                This message
    bcmrpi              Raspberry Pi    (ARMv6)
    bcm2709             Raspberry Pi 2  (ARMv7)
[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev%

Run the build command again, with the board you need as an argument (I’m going to time the build with time):

[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev% time ./build bcm2709
... (lots of output removed)
4984.143u 435.744s 22:52.57 394.8%      0+0k 704+4154968io 2pf+0w
[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev% 

As SpongeBob would say, “23 minutes later.” When the build is finished, the ecclinux directory looks like this:

[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev% ls
00_rpilinux-4.1.15.patch   bin/       etc/            linux-4.1.15/  sbin/
99_llvmlinux-4.1.15.patch  build*     image/          makefile       sinit/
arm-linux-engeabihf/       download/  iproute2.patch  ntfs3g.patch
[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev%

There are three new directories: download/ contains tar files that have been downloaded in case you need them again, arm-linux-engeabihf/ is where the build was made for the ARMv7, and image/ is where the binaries were installed. Let’s take a look at image/arm-linux-engeabihf/:

[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev% ls image/arm-linux-engeabihf/
bcm2709/  bin/  etc/  lib/  sbin/  usr/  var/
[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux] dev% 

The bcm2709/ directory is what will be in the /boot directory in the final Raspberry Pi 2 SD image. It has Pi 2 specific files in it, including the kernel:

[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/image/arm-linux-engeabihf] dev% ls bcm2709/
dtbs/  System.map-4.1.15-v7  vmlinuz-4.1.15-v7
[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/image/arm-linux-engeabihf] dev%

Here’s what the bin and sbin directories look like:

[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/image/arm-linux-engeabihf] dev% ls bin/ sbin/ 
bin/:
[*           ed*           ksh*         nltrigger*   sha256sum*    tty*
basename*    eject*        last*        nohup*       sha512sum*    umount*
cal*         env*          lastlog*     od*          sleep*        uname*
cat*         ex@           link*        pagesize*    smdev*        unexpand*
chattr*      expand*       ln*          passwd*      sort*         uniq*
chgrp*       expr*         logger*      paste*       split*        unlink*
chmod*       fallocate*    login*       pidof*       sponge*       unshare*
chown*       false*        logname*     pivot_root*  stat*         uptime*
chroot*      find*         ls*          printenv*    strings*      uudecode*
chvt*        flock*        lsattr*      printf*      su*           uuencode*
cksum*       fold*         lsmod*       ps*          swaplabel*    uuidgen*
clear*       free*         lsusb*       pwd*         swapoff*      view@
cmp*         freeramdisk*  md5sum*      readahead*   swapon*       vim*
cols*        fsfreeze*     mesg*        readlink*    switch_root*  vimdiff@
comm*        getconf*      mkdir*       renice*      sync*         vimtutor*
cp*          getty*        mkfifo*      respawn*     sysctl*       vtallow*
cron*        grep*         mknod*       rm*          tail*         watch*
ctrlaltdel*  halt*         mkswap*      rmdir*       tar*          wc*
cut*         head*         mktemp*      rmmod*       tee*          which*
date*        hostname*     mount*       run_nldev*   test*         who*
dd*          hwclock*      mountpoint*  rview@       tftp*         whoami*
df*          id*           mv*          rvim@        time*         xargs*
dirname*     insmod*       nice*        sed*         touch*        xxd*
dmesg*       join*         nl*          seq*         tr*           yes*
du*          kill*         nldev*       setsid*      true*
echo*        killall5*     nlmon*       sha1sum*     truncate*

sbin/:
badblocks*   findfs@        mke2fs*            ntfs-3g.secaudit*  resize2fs*
blkid*       fsck*          mkfs.ext2@         ntfs-3g.usermap*   routef*
bridge*      fsck.ext2@     mkfs.ext3@         ntfscat*           routel*
ctstat@      fsck.ext3@     mkfs.ext4@         ntfsclone*         rtacct*
debugfs*     fsck.ext4@     mkfs.ext4dev@      ntfscluster*       rtmon*
dumpe2fs*    fsck.ext4dev@  mkfs.ntfs@         ntfscmp*           rtpr*
e2freefrag*  genl*          mklost+found*      ntfscp*            rtstat@
e2fsck*      ifcfg*         mkntfs*            ntfsfix*           sdhcp*
e2image*     ifstat*        mount.lowntfs-3g@  ntfsinfo*          sinit*
e2label@     ip*            mount.ntfs-3g@     ntfslabel*         ss*
e2undo*      lnstat*        nstat*             ntfsls*            tune2fs*
e4defrag*    logsave*       ntfs-3g*           ntfsresize*        uuidd*
filefrag*    lowntfs-3g*    ntfs-3g.probe*     ntfsundelete*
[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/image/arm-linux-engeabihf] dev%

Not bad for 23 minutes of work!

If you want to try the kernel on your Pi 2, you need to copy vmlinuz-4.1.15-v7 to the Rasbian /boot directory as kernel7.img. In my case, my Pi 2 is at 192.124.43.100 so I can do this:

[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/image/arm-linux-engeabihf] dev% scp bcm2709/vmlinuz-4.1.15-v7 root@192.124.43.100:/boot/kernel7.img
root@192.124.43.100's password: 
vmlinuz-4.1.15-v7                              100% 4355KB   4.3MB/s   00:00    
[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/image/arm-linux-engeabihf] dev%

After a reboot:

[rich@dev ~]$ ssh root@192.124.43.100
root@192.124.43.100's password: 

The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent
permitted by applicable law.
Last login: Fri Jan  1 17:28:43 2016 from 192.124.43.2
root@raspberrypi:~# dmesg | less
[    0.000000] Booting Linux on physical CPU 0xf00
[    0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuset
[    0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpu
[    0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuacct
[    0.000000] Linux version 4.1.15-v7 (rich@dev) (ecc 0.1.24 based on clang version 3.8.0 (trunk) (based on LLVM 3.8.0svn)) #1 SMP Mon Jan 4 20:45:34 CST 2016

Not bad. To complete the kernel update you’ll also want to update the kernel modules:

[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/image/arm-linux-engeabihf] dev% ls lib/modules/4.1.15-v7/
kernel/            modules.builtin      modules.dep.bin  modules.softdep
modules.alias      modules.builtin.bin  modules.devname  modules.symbols
modules.alias.bin  modules.dep          modules.order    modules.symbols.bin
[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/image/arm-linux-engeabihf] dev% scp -r lib/modules/4.1.15-v7/ root@192.124.43.100:/lib/modules
root@192.124.43.100's password: 
Permission denied, please try again.
root@192.124.43.100's password: 
modules.symbols                                100%  146KB 146.2KB/s   00:00    
modules.dep                                    100%  131KB 131.1KB/s   00:00  
...
modules.builtin.bin                            100% 5903     5.8KB/s   00:00    
modules.builtin                                100% 4341     4.2KB/s   00:00    
[~/ellcc/libecc/ecclinux/image/arm-linux-engeabihf] dev%

Reboot again and even the mouse and keyboard work.

In Part 4, I’ll show how to make the SD image and use the userland programs that we’ve built. In the mean time you can copy them to the Pi’s SD card and use them.

Cross Building Linux With ELLCC: Part 2 – Raspberry Pi B+

Update: Cross Building Linux With ELLCC: Part 3 – Other Flavors of Pi
In a previous post I tested the waters to see how close ELLCC is to cross compiling the Linux kernel. That post was mostly a theoretical exercise to see what it would take. Over the holidays I decided that I needed to do something a little more concrete. My son, a 10 year old obsessed with Minecraft, got a Raspberry Pi for Christmas. My nefarious plan is to divert his attention away from Minecraft at least long enough to make his Pi and camera module into something he can use to spy on the family. My other nefarious plan is to use ELLCC to build the Linux kernel that we’ll be running on his Pi.

In the previous post I used the source from the LLVMLinux site. This time I started with the kernel source for the Raspberry Pi. The good news is that the source can be built for the Pi. The bad news is that it doesn’t have all the patches need to compile with a clang based compiler. It turned out that the build wasn’t too bad: I had Christmas Eve and Day off and in between family events and Santa preparations I was able to massage the source enough to boot the kernel on our Pi.

To get started I followed the instructions on Linux From Scratch on the Raspberry Pi.
Here are the exact steps I took. First I created a new directory to hold the ELLCC tool chain and the Raspberry Linux kernel source, then I downloaded and untar’d both:

mkdir ecclinux
cd ecclinux
wget http://ellcc.org/releases/ellcc-x86_64-linux-eng-0.1.23.tgz
tar xvfp ellcc-x86_64-linux-eng-0.1.23.tgz
wget https://github.com/raspberrypi/linux/archive/rpi-4.1.y.tar.gz
tar xvfp rpi-4.1.y.tar.gz

I had to change the kernel sources slightly during my build. I saved a patch
file, here’s how to apply it:

patch -p0 < ellcc/libecc/llvmlinux/ecc-rpi-4.1.y.patch

There is a special little 'm' makefile that helps with the build. Copy
it into the top level of the kernel source directory:

cd linux-rpi-4.1.y/
cp ../ellcc/libecc/llvmlinux/makefile .

Now the actual build is easy:

make bcmrpi_defconfig
make

I have my Raspberry Pi on my home network at 192.124.43.98. I also allowed ssh
and scp root access by follwoing the instructions here. This lets me
just copy the new kernel to my Pi:

scp ./arch/arm/boot/zImage root@192.124.43.98:/boot/kernel.img

Now I can ssh to the Pi and reboot:

[~] dev% ssh root@192.124.43.98
root@192.124.43.98's password: 

The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent
permitted by applicable law.
root@raspberrypi:~# reboot
Connection to 192.124.43.98 closed by remote host.
Connection to 192.124.43.98 closed.
[~] dev%

I ping the Pi until it reboots and log in again:

[~] dev% ssh root@192.124.43.98
root@192.124.43.98's password: 

The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent
permitted by applicable law.
Last login: Sat Dec 26 20:27:15 2015 from 192.124.43.2
root@raspberrypi:~# dmesg | less
[    0.000000] Booting Linux on physical CPU 0x0
[    0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuset
[    0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpu
[    0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuacct
[    0.000000] Linux version 4.1.15 (rich@dev) (ecc 0.1.23 based on clang version 3.8.0 (trunk) (based on LLVM 3.8.0svn)) #1 Sat Dec 26 11:32:33 CST 2015
[    0.000000] CPU: ARMv6-compatible processor [410fb767] revision 7 (ARMv7), cr=00c5387d
...

Very nice!

Using ELLCC to (Cross) Compile Toybox

Toybox combines many common Linux command line utilities together into a single BSD-licensed executable. I wanted to to see how hard it would be to compile and cross compile it using ELLCC. It turned out to be pretty easy after I added a few Linux specific header files. These are the files I added:

[~/ellcc] dev% ls ~/ellcc/libecc/include/linux
fs.h  if_vlan.h  loop.h  nbd.h  rfkill.h  rtc.h  sched.h  sockios.h  soundcard.h

The needed include files are in the ELLCC source tree now and are available in the 0.1.22 binary release. Here’s all you need to do to build Toybox:

[rich@dev ~]$ mkdir toybox 
[rich@dev ~]$ cd toybox
[rich@dev toybox]$ wget http://landley.net/toybox/downloads/toybox-0.6.1.tar.gz
--2015-12-23 17:02:37--  http://landley.net/toybox/downloads/toybox-0.6.1.tar.gz
Resolving landley.net (landley.net)... 208.113.171.142
Connecting to landley.net (landley.net)|208.113.171.142|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 736371 (719K) [application/x-tar]
Saving to: ‘toybox-0.6.1.tar.gz’

toybox-0.6.1.tar.gz  100%[=====================>] 719.11K   845KB/s   in 0.9s   

2015-12-23 17:02:38 (845 KB/s) - ‘toybox-0.6.1.tar.gz’ saved [736371/736371]

[rich@dev toybox]$ tar xfp toybox-0.6.1.tar.gz 
[rich@dev toybox]$ cd toybox-0.6.1/
[rich@dev toybox-0.6.1]$ CC="/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target armv6-linux-engeabihf" CFLAGS="-Wno-format-extra-args -Wno-uninitialized" make defconfig toybox
cc -o kconfig/conf kconfig/conf.c kconfig/zconf.tab.c -DKBUILD_NO_NLS=1 \
        -DPROJECT_NAME=\"ToyBox\"
scripts/genconfig.sh
kconfig/conf -D /dev/null Config.in > /dev/null
scripts/make.sh
Generate headers from toys/*/*.c...
generated/newtoys.h Library probe.......
Make generated/config.h from .config.
generated/flags.h generated/globals.h generated/help.h
Compile toybox................................................................................................................................................................strip: Unable to recognise the format of the input file `toybox_unstripped'
strip failed, using unstripped
.

Oops. The strip failed because the standard x86_64 Linux strip doesn’t understand ARM object file formats. We can use ecc-strip:

[rich@dev toybox-0.6.1]$ ~/ellcc/bin/ecc-strip -o toybox toybox_unstripped
[rich@dev toybox-0.6.1]$ file toybox
toybox: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, ARM, EABI5 version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, BuildID[sha1]=11e423037c6fb0e4ee10ef5f53a421fca86a81e3, stripped               
[rich@dev toybox-0.6.1]$ size toybox                                             
   text    data     bss     dec     hex filename                                 
 401916    3208   21020  426144   680a0 toybox  

Lest’s send it over to my trusty Raspberry Pi:

                                 
[rich@dev toybox-0.6.1]$ scp toybox rich@192.124.43.98:                                                   
rich@192.124.43.98's password:                                                   
scp: ./toybox: Permission denied                                                 
[rich@dev toybox-0.6.1]$ ssh rich@192.124.43.98
rich@192.124.43.98's password:                                                   
                                                                                 
The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software;        
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the               
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.                                  
                                                                                 
Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent                
permitted by applicable law.                                                     
Last login: Sun Dec 20 19:20:36 2015 from 192.124.43.2   

What commands does Toybox have?

                        
rich@raspberrypi:~$ ./toybox                                                     
acpi base64 basename blkid blockdev bunzip2 bzcat cal cat catv chattr            
chgrp chmod chown chroot chvt cksum clear cmp comm count cp cpio cut             
date df dirname dmesg dos2unix du echo egrep eject env expand factor             
fallocate false fgrep find flock free freeramdisk fstype fsync grep              
groups halt head help hexedit hostid hostname hwclock id ifconfig                
inotifyd insmod install ionice iorenice kill killall killall5 link               
ln login logname losetup ls lsattr lsmod lspci lsusb makedevs md5sum             
mix mkdir mkfifo mknod mkpasswd mkswap mktemp modinfo mount mountpoint           
mv nbd-client nc netcat nice nl nohup nproc nsenter od oneit partprobe           
passwd paste patch pidof pivot_root pmap poweroff printenv printf                
ps pwd pwdx readahead readlink realpath reboot renice reset rev rfkill           
rm rmdir rmmod sed seq setsid sh sha1sum shred sleep sort split stat             
strings su swapoff swapon switch_root sync sysctl tac tail taskset               
tee time timeout touch toysh true truncate tty umount uname uniq unix2dos        
unlink uptime usleep uudecode uuencode vconfig vmstat w wc which who             
whoami xargs xxd yes                                                             
rich@raspberrypi:~$ ./toybox ls -l
total 3112                                                                       
-rwxr-x--x 1 rich rich  141580 2015-12-20 19:22 hello                            
-r-xr-xr-x 1 rich rich 1446476 2015-12-23 21:21 toybox   

Now let’s build for the x86_64:

                        
rich@raspberrypi:~$ logout                                                                           
Connection to 192.124.43.98 closed.                                              
[rich@dev toybox-0.6.1]$ make clean                                              
rm -f kconfig/zconf.hash.c kconfig/zconf.tab.c kconfig/lex.zconf.c kconfig/conf kconfig/mconf                                                                     
rm -rf toybox toybox_unstripped generated change .singleconfig*                  
[rich@dev toybox-0.6.1]$ CC="/home/rich/ellcc/bin/ecc -target x86_64-linux-eng" CFLAGS="-Wno-format-extra-args -Wno-uninitialized" make defconfig toybox     
cc -o kconfig/conf kconfig/conf.c kconfig/zconf.tab.c -DKBUILD_NO_NLS=1 \        
        -DPROJECT_NAME=\"ToyBox\"                                                
scripts/genconfig.sh                                                             
kconfig/conf -D /dev/null Config.in > /dev/null                                  
scripts/make.sh                                                                  
Generate headers from toys/*/*.c...                                              
generated/newtoys.h Library probe.......                                         
Make generated/config.h from .config.                                            
generated/flags.h generated/globals.h generated/help.h                           
Compile toybox.................................................................................................................................................................                                                                    
[rich@dev toybox-0.6.1]$ file toybox
toybox: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, BuildID[sha1]=6d60409b768431310a5ce6085e595b6a98a66d45, stripped                  
[rich@dev toybox-0.6.1]$ size toybox
   text    data     bss     dec     hex filename
 376786    6192   22152  405130   62e8a toybox                                   
[rich@dev toybox-0.6.1]$ 

Cool stuff.